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Scholars at Work: Clarine Jacobs: Home

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About Scholars @ Work

Scholars @ Work is an initiative from the Faculty Center for Innovation designed to showcase the incredible and innovative research and scholarship from Park faculty members around the world. In addition to faculty profiles, Scholars @ Work hosts an annual fall reception and a roundtable panel discussion every semester giving faculty across disciplines an opportunity to collaboratively discuss a topic of timely importance to the University. For more information on Scholars @ Work, visit our web page!

Clarine Jacobs

Assistant Professor of Management and Quality Assurance Support

Parkville Campus, Plaster Center

Scholarship Highlights

Clarine's impressive career has included published scholarship on a wide variety of topics. Browse selected highlights from her research, and view her CV below.

Jacobs, C. M. (2023, June 15). Leadership-followership relationship through the pandemic for our first lines of defense: Healthcare workers and military personnel. International Journal of Nursing and Health Care Research, 6,1430.

The scientific community internationally was compelled to find answers and therapies to control SARSCoV-2. In 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) [1] affirmed a Public Health Emergency (PHE) of international concern, the highest level of alarm under international law (2020). The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) warned that SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), seemingly transmitted most by person-to-person contact (CDC, 2020) [2] so nationwide public health orders were exhorted. Amid an infectious pandemic, vaccines are a public health strategy implemented to prevent the spread of disease. The CDC continues to collaborate partnerships to fight new variants and lineages, maintaining global efforts to combat the largest viral genomic sequencing effort thus far. Nevertheless, the PHE for COVID-19, declared under Section 319 of the Public Health Service (PHS) Act, expired May 11, 2023. As we continue our fight with new variants of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, it is suggested that we learn from the past three years to understand and reference previous experiences, successes, and failures, to make better decisions in the present into the future. Not only is there an opportunity to strengthen the leadership-followership relationship by building trust through transparency, but now is the time to reimagine healthcare to create true interoperable visibility and consider how the first lines of defense can be better protected to serve others. This article reviews the timeline of the COVID-19 pandemic, the vaccine mandate, the effects on the first lines of defense, and the toxic triangle that created an onset of confusion, controversy, and fear throughout the country.

Read the full article for free.

Park University FCI Fellowship (2021)

Clarine's Kindness research summary:

My topic was Contagious Kindness in honor of my beloved mother. That initiative sparked a continued interest in the Science of Kindness. Most recently, I presented as the keynote speaker for an international medical conference in August 2023.

I'm honored to blend my passions of research, teaching, and speaking in the academic community, medical community, and organizational communities.

Kindness benefits both the giver and the receiver. Being kind and being a recipient of kindness is a good thing — for everyone. Not only does kindness boost happiness, well-being, resilience, creativity, and empathy, kindness triggers a response in our brain. The warm feeling of wellbeing that washes over you when you've done something kind isn't just in your head. It's in your brain chemicals, too. Nearly 86 billion neurons form 100 trillion connections to each other in the brain - numbers that paradoxically are too extensive for the human brain to comprehend. The brain is truly extraordinary! Similar to kindness, the study of occupational stress has evolved and proves to be a difficult endeavor because of the complex nature of the topic. As one of the most interesting and mysterious processes, the study of stress not only focuses on what happens in the body during a stressful experience but also on what occurs in the psyche of the individual mind. For this reason, the phenomena of kindness and stress continue to intrigue me.

About Clarine

Dr. Clarine Jacobs is Assistant Professor of Management at Park University located at the Parkville, Missouri campus. 

Clarine received her B.A. in Communications and Leadership Studies before earning her M.S. in Organizational Communications, her B.S. in Nursing, her Ph.D. in Industrial/Organizational Leadership and a DBA in Business Administration.  

Clarine has been honored to teach at the university level for almost two decades and has been at Park University since 2015. Her research interests focus on leadership, ineffective leadership, followership, occupational stress, burnout, and kindness. She is a member of the National Society of Leadership.  

When not researching or teaching, Clarine enjoys hiking, kayaking, boating, paddle boarding, reading, and spending time with her family, friends, pets, etc.

Wise words from Clarine

"Authenticity and a service-oriented focus are key for connectedness and engagement. Authentic leaders are self-aware, use emotional intelligence, and embody a strong moral code; they consistently display transparency, genuineness, and honesty, which inspires trust to foster positive cultures and relationships. Servant leaders inspire others--prioritize the greater common good, display ethical and caring behaviors, and strive for the growth and well-being of others through authentic relationships. Authenticity is key!"

Jacobs, C. M. (2021). Lessons from leaders of today for leaders of tomorrow. International Journal of Research in Commerce and Management Studies (IJRCMS).

Emergent lessons learned and experienced can be harnessed to develop the next generation of effective leaders. Leadership requires both experience and continuous development to flourish. As learners of leadership, empirical growth can be found by developing knowledge and reflecting on the experiences of successful leaders. The goal of this exploration was to provide insights that can help students succeed with their leadership challenges and leadership dreams. Moving beyond the classroom learning, this research wanted to question the conventional wisdom surrounding leadership and take the teachable moment to reiterate to students that not only can great leadership be found locally, but lessons learned can bridge that gap between abstract concepts explored in the classroom and real world application. Interviews were conducted to explore the lived experiences and personal meanings of leadership lessons learned from leaders in the community. Identified themes and subthemes captured a structural description of the participants lived experiences with leadership and developed an aggregate description to capture the overall essence of the await and how to determine lessons learned.

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Jacobs, C. M. (2019, June 10). Ineffective-leader-induced occupational stress. Sage, 9.

The purpose of this study is to explore the meaning or essence of the phenomenon of ineffective-leader-induced occupational stress inside and outside the workplace based on the perceptions and the lived experiences of the followers. Participants included a purposive sample of nine individuals. The present study was able to demonstrate that all participants experienced occupational stress resulting from ineffective leadership, which was associated with diminished organizational and individual outcomes including negative employee health problems at the psychological and physiological levels. The results in the study revealed the importance of follower perceptions in leadership effectiveness. It is the role of the organization, the leaders, and the followers—as a whole—to understand the perceptions of others and work toward finding exemplary approaches where both leaders and followers play active, vital roles in organizational success and minimize occupational stress.

Read the full article for free.

Scholar Spotlight

Jacobs, C. M. (2023). Plenary Speaker - International Medical Conference, International Conference on Global Advanced Nursing and Healthcare. Topic: Healthcare Worker Occupational Stress and Burnout

Occupational stress, a major source of stress for American workers, has escalated progressively. This progression has gained attention from organizations such as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), Society for Occupational Health Psychology (SOHP), World Health Organization (WHO), American Psychological Association (APA), Mental Health America (MHA), International Council of Nurses (INC), etc. Occupational stress was declared a global epidemic because of the negative economic, health, and social outcomes. Alongside the stress of working through the COVID-19 pandemic, declared a Public Health Emergency of global concern under the International Health Regulation, occupational stress effects on mental health have proven to be extensive and significant.

The unprecedented uncertainty of the turbulent time and constant flux have affected the health and well-being of frontline health care workers (HCWs), who expose themselves daily both mentally and physically. Paradoxically, HCWs are working under particularly intense stress levels for the healthcare system that should be protecting their mental and medical health. Occupational stress has exacerbated burnout and exhaustion among HCWs and continues to rise, expanding the staff shortage. Overstressed HCWs can become physically and psychologically drained as they are among the most vulnerable groups at risk for experiencing clinically significant distress or impairment. This distress from exposure to trauma during the pandemic can result in lower quality of patient care and patient safety. To err is human and expecting perfect performance in the healthcare field is unrealistic; however, there is a need to explore how to minimize occupational stress and burnout by increasing support through interventions for both the health and well-being of the caregivers and patient safety. 
Presentation objectives: 

  • Explore occupational stress 
  • Identify causes of occupational stress in HCWs 
  • Explain leadership role in occupational stress 
  • Analyze opportunities of support for promoting patient care/safety and minimizing occupational stress 

Current Research: International Book Chapter. Title: Burnout Syndrome - Characteristics and Interventions. Chapter Title: Occupational Stress and Burnout

Chapter objectives: 
•                Explore the concepts of stress and strain.
•                Explain occupational stress.
•                Explicate causes of occupational stress.
•                Examine how occupational stress can lead to burnout.

Key Concepts: Stress, Stressors, Strain, Stress Response, Person-Environment Fit Theory, Occupational Stress, Stress Disorder, Burnout, Quiet Quitting, Loud Quitting.

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